1. Diagnostic Tests
Assesses the presence of the virus at a given point in time. A negative means only that an individual was negative at the time the test.
- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests and Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT): Detects the RNA genetic material in the COVID-19 virus and are often collected via nasal pharyngeal; mid turbinate; nasal, oral or throat swab; or saliva collection.
- Antigen tests* are rapid tests which produce results in 15-30 minutes. They are less reliable than NAATs, especially for people who do not have symptoms. A single, negative antigen test result does not rule out infection. To best detect infection, a negative antigen test should be repeated at least 48 hours apart (known as serial testing). Sometimes a follow-up NAAT may be recommended to confirm an antigen test result.
- *Self-tests, or at-home tests, are usually antigen tests that can be taken anywhere without having to go to a specific testing site. Follow FDA and manufacturer's instructions, including for the number of times you may need to test. Multiple negative test results increase the confidence that you are not infected with the virus that causes COVID-19.
- You can order free self-test kits at COVIDtests.gov or purchase tests online, in pharmacies, and retail stores.
- You can also visit FDA's website to see a list of authorized tests.
2. Non-Diagnostic Tests
- Serology (Antibody) Tests: Detect antibodies in the blood indicating possible prior exposure to COVID-19, which may develop 6-14 days after infection.
Note: No test is perfect. There is a false negative rate and false positive rate that varies depending on the test and the collection modality. Accuracy of antigen tests may be problematic due to poor sensitivity.
Check with your insurance company. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act and CARES Act do not require an insurance company to pay for a test unless you have symptoms or a known or recent exposure to COVID-19 and it has been determined to be medically necessary for you by an attending healthcare provider.
View more information about COVID-19 testing insurance coverage.
Through the work of a number of entities, testing is accessible for Pennsylvanians. As entities such as pharmacies offer testing (some still require symptoms), more Pennsylvanians can get tested close to home. While most COVID-19 tests are performed using a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab, many of the publicly accessible sites are using anterior nasal or nasal swabs that are less invasive. Where an NP swab is inserted deep enough to contact the nasopharynx at the back of the nasal cavity administered by a medical professional, a nasal swab is only inserted roughly 0.5 inches inside the nostril and can be self-administered. Both of these collection methods can be a bit uncomfortable, but neither should be painful.
The Pennsylvania Department of Health (DOH), in partnership with Concentric by Ginkgo Bioworks (Ginkgo), is offering COVID-19 testing services at no cost to all K-12 Schools across the Commonwealth, with the exception of schools within Philadelphia county, for the entire 2022-2023 school year.
This K-12 testing program is voluntary and free for schools and participants. Participating schools can choose from several testing options when opting in the program. Participating schools that plan to administer Point of Care (POC) antigen testing onsite may utilize the DOH's Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) Certificate of Waiver to comply with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) laboratory testing regulations.
To opt in to this K–12 COVID-19 school testing program, school leaders must complete the Statement of Assurances form and submit the completed form to RA-DHK12COVIDTEST@pa.gov. Upon submission of the completed Statement of Assurances form, the school will be deemed an "Authorized School" for participation in the program.