Interim Guidance for Skilled Nursing Facilities During COVID-19
April 14, 20221
The Pennsylvania Department of Health (Department) is providing the below guidance as an update to the guidance issued on May 26, 2021, to all Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNF). Facilities should continue to follow all relevant CMS guidance available
now and in the future. If there is a conflict between Department and CMS guidance, follow the CMS guidance.
 This updates the Interim Guidance for Skilled Nursing Facilities During COVID-19 issued on May 26, 2021. Revisions are displayed in red font.
1. Terms and Acronyms Used in this Guidance
Terms defined for the purposes of this guidance are as follows:
- "Cross-over visitation" refers to visits to a SNF from an individual residing in a personal care home, continuing care retirement community, or assisted living facility located on the same campus or in the same building that are not defined as compassionate care visitation by CMS.
- "Fully vaccinated" refers to a person who is greater than or equal to two weeks following receipt of the second dose in a two-dose series, or greater than or equal to two weeks following receipt of one dose of a single-dose vaccine, per the CDC's Public Health Recommendations for Vaccinated Persons.
- "Outbreak" is defined by CMS QSO-20-38-NH as "a new COVID-19 infection in any staff member or any nursing home-onset COVID-19 infection in a resident. In an outbreak investigation, rapid identification and isolation of new cases is critical in stopping further viral transmission. A resident who is admitted to the facility with COVID-19 does not constitute a facility outbreak."
- "Screening" includes identifying "all who enter the facility for signs and symptoms of COVID-19 (e.g., temperature checks, questions about and observations of signs or symptoms), and denial of entry of those with signs or symptoms or those who have had close contact with someone with COVID-19 infection until they meet the criteria used for residents to discontinue transmission-based precautions (quarantine) (regardless of the visitor's vaccination status)," per CMS QSO-20-39-NH, as revised March 10, 2022. Screening is one part of the Core Principles of COVID-19 Infection Prevention provided by CMS that SNFs should use to protect residents, staff, visitors, and others.
- "Social distancing (or physical distancing)" is the practice of increasing the physical space between individuals and decreasing the frequency of contact to reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19 (ideally to maintain at least 6 feet between all individuals, even those who are asymptomatic). Social distancing is one of the Core Principles of COVID-19 Infection Prevention provided by CMS. The more recent term "physical distancing" is used to stress the importance of maintaining physical space when in public areas.
- "Staff" includes employees, consultants, contractors, volunteers, and caregivers who provide care and services to residents on behalf of the facility, and students in the facility's nurse aide training programs or from affiliated academic institutions.
- "Universal masking" means the protocols set forth in PA-HAN 492 and PA-HAN 597, with homemade cloth face covering being acceptable for visitors. Use of a face covering or mask is one of the Core Principles of COVID-19 Infection Prevention provided by CMS.
- "Unvaccinated" refers to a person who does not fit the definition of "fully vaccinated," including people whose vaccination status is not known, for the purposes of this guidance.
- "Up to date" means receiving all vaccines according to the recommendations provided by CDC. This includes a primary series of vaccine, booster doses, and all recommended additional dose(s) for immunocompromised people.
- "Visitors" includes individuals from outside of the facility who will be interacting with residents. This includes cross-over visitors.
- "Volunteer" is an individual who is a part of the facility's established volunteer program.
Acronyms used in this guidance are defined as follows:
- CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- CMS – Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
- PA-HAN – Pennsylvania Health Alert Network
- PPE – Personal Protective Equipment
- RCAT – Regional Congregate care Assistance Teams
- SNF – Skilled Nursing Facility
2. Relevant Directives and Information
This guidance is written in concert with applicable CMS Memorandums and PA-HANs.
a. CMS Memorandums and Alerts
Facilities must adhere to all CMS Memorandums for nursing homes. Five have been released that are of particular note for SNFs at this time:
- Testing: SNFs are to test residents and staff based on parameters and at the frequency set forth in the following CMS Memorandum – QSO-20-38-NH with the subject Interim Final Rule (IFC), CMS-3401-IFC, Additional Policy and Regulatory Revisions in Response to the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency related to Long-Term Care (LTC) Facility Testing Requirements and Revised COVID-19 Focused Survey Tool as revised March 10, 2022. Testing must continue after vaccinations in accordance with QSO-20-38-NH until that document is revised or rescinded by CMS.
- Visitation: Visitation is now allowed for all residents at all times. SNFs are to follow the visitation guidance set forth in the following CMS Memorandum – QSO-20-39-NH with the subject Nursing Home Visitation – COVID-19 as revised March 10, 2022. This updated guidance should be reviewed carefully as it includes the impact of COVID-19 vaccinations on visitation. Another useful reference is the CMS Infographic entitled Mom's vaccinated: When Can I Visit Her Nursing Home?
- Vaccine Immunization Requirements - Residents: SNFs are to follow the guidance set forth in the following CMS Memorandum- QSO-21-19-NH with the subject Interim Final Rule - COVID-19 Vaccine Immunization Requirements for Residents and Staff dated May 11, 2021. This guidance should be reviewed carefully as it includes new requirements for educating residents or resident representatives and staff regarding the benefits and potential side effects associated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and offering the vaccine. It also includes the requirement that facilities report COVID-19 vaccine and therapeutic treatment information to the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
- Vaccine Immunization Requirements – Staff: SNFSs are to follow the guidance set forth in the following CMS Memorandum – QSO-22-07-ALL with the subject Interim Final Rule - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Omnibus COVID-19 Health Care Staff Vaccination revised April 5, 2022.
- Voting: SNFs are to follow the voting guidance set forth in the following CMS Memorandum – QSO-21-02-NH with the subject Compliance with Residents' Rights Requirement related to Nursing Home Residents' Right to Vote dated October 5, 2020.
All SNFs should follow the direction provided in the PA-HAN Alerts, Advisories, and Updates applicable to those facilities. At this time, those are as follows:
3. PPE and Infection Prevention
Appropriate use of PPE and infection prevention measures are critical in stopping the spread of COVID-19. The following guidance is provided for PPE and infection prevention in SNFs.
a. Order of the Secretary of Health Issued August 17, 2020
In accordance with the Order of the Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Health Directing Long-Term Care Facilities to Implement Measures for Use and Distribution of Personal Protective Equipment issued on August 17, 2020:
- Each facility shall develop, implement, and adhere to policies and procedures that provide for the procurement and distribution of PPE to all staff.
- The policies and procedures must, at a minimum, include distribution of respirators to staff providing direct patient care to COVID-19 positive and suspected cases and staff assigned to provide direct patient care in COVID-19 units. The respirators distributed by each facility must be National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-approved particulate filtering facepiece respirators, or if those are not available, respirators approved by the Food and Drug Administration, including through an Emergency Use Authorization, as named in Appendix A. The respirator distribution must occur prior to the beginning of the staff member's shift, and the respirator must be replaced as soon as practical if the facility is notified by a staff member that their mask has become soiled, damaged, or otherwise ineffective.
b. CMS Core Principles of Infection Prevention
In the CMS Memorandum (Ref QSO-20-39-NH) as revised March 10, 2022, the following Core Principles of COVID-19 Infection Prevention are provided:
- Visitors who have a positive viral test for COVID-19, symptoms of COVID-19, or currently meet the criteria for quarantine, should not enter the facility until they meet the criteria used for residents to discontinue transmission-based precautions (quarantine). Facilities should screen all who enter for these visitation exclusions.
- Hand hygiene (use of alcohol-based hand rub is preferred)
- Face covering or mask (covering mouth and nose), and Social distancing at least six feet between persons, in accordance with CDC guidance;
- Instructional signage throughout the facility and proper visitor education on COVID-19 signs and symptoms, infection control precautions, other applicable facility practices (e.g., use of face covering or mask, specified entries, exits and routes to designated areas, hand hygiene);
- Cleaning and disinfecting high frequency touched surfaces in the facility often, and designated visitation areas after each visit;
- Appropriate staff use of PPE;
- Effective cohorting of residents (e.g., separate areas dedicated COVID-19 care); and
- Resident and staff testing conducted as required at 42 CFR 483.80(h) (See QSO-20-38-NH revised March 10, 2022).
c. Communal Dining Precautions
The CDC has provided guidance on communal activities and dining based on resident vaccination status. See the CDC guidance Updated Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations in Response to COVID-19 Vaccination for information on communal dining and activities. Vaccination status should be determined at the time of the activity. If vaccination status cannot not be determined, the safest practice is to maintain social distancing, infection prevention and control practices. Patients/residents who are up to date with all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses can participate in communal dining without use of source control or physical distancing. If patients/residents who are not up to date with vaccine doses are dining in a communal area (e.g., dining room) all patients/residents should use source control when not eating and non-up to date patients/residents should continue to remain at least 6 feet from others.
d. Resident Outings
SNFs must permit residents to leave the facility as they choose. Should a resident choose to leave, the SNF should remind the resident and any individual accompanying the resident to follow all recommended infection prevention practices including wearing a face covering or mask, physical distancing, and hand hygiene and to encourage those around them to do the same.
Upon the resident's return, SNFs should take the following actions:
- Screen residents upon return for signs or symptoms of COVID-19.
- If the resident or family member reports possible close contact to an individual with COVID-19 while outside of the facility, the SNF should test the resident for COVID-19, regardless of vaccination status. The SNF should place the resident on quarantine if the resident is not up to date with all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses. If the resident develops signs or symptoms of COVID-19 after returning to the facility, test the resident for COVID-19 and place the resident on transmission-based precautions regardless of vaccination status.
- SNFs may also opt to test residents, who are not up to date with all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses, without signs or symptoms, if they leave the facility frequently or for a prolonged length of time, such as over twenty-four hours.
- SNFs may consider quarantining residents who are not up to date with all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses and who leave the facility if, based on an assessment of risk, uncertainty exists about their adherence or the adherence of those around them to recommended infection prevention measures.
- Monitor residents for signs and symptoms of COVID-19 daily.
Residents who leave the facility for twenty-four hours or longer should be generally managed as a new admission or readmission, as recommended by the CDC's "Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Spread in Nursing Homes." Please note that there are exceptions to quarantine, including for residents who are up to date with all recommended vaccine doses.
e. Cross-over Visitation Precautions
Cross-over visitors must adhere to the same infection prevention precautions as other visitors. If there is an outbreak in the facility from which the cross-over visitor originates, cross-over visitation is permissible only if the cross-over visitor resides in a green zone (per PA-HAN 626).
f. On-site Beauty and Barber Shops
Per CMS guidance provided to the states, facilities should continue to screen visitors and contractors, including beauty and/or barber shop staff and implement source control measures. Continued operation of the beauty and/or barber shop depends on the facility's ability to maintain infection prevention and control measures including proper social distancing, hand hygiene, use of proper face coverings, and sanitation of equipment used between residents. Additionally, the facility must ensure that residents participating in the beauty and/or barber shop must also adhere to infection control practices by wearing a face covering and maintaining distance from other residents. If an outbreak occurs in the facility, the guidance in QSO-20-39-NH (as revised March 10, 2022) regarding outbreaks applies to accessing services in beauty and/or barber shops as well.
4. Support and Resources During the COVID-19 Pandemic
There is support available for testing, staffing, and PPE. If approved by the Long-Term Care Task Force, these resources are provided at no cost to the facility.
- Testing: To request assistance with COVID-19 outbreak testing, complete this online form: Universal Testing Needs Assessment Form. Your request will be considered, and someone from the Long-Term Care Task Force will be in touch with you. For questions about testing, email ra-dhCOVIDtesting@pa.gov.
- Staffing: For short-term crisis staffing support due to a COVID-19 outbreak, complete this online form to request staffing for a 3-5 day period: Pennsylvania Long-Term Care Task Force Staffing Support Request.
- PPE: For PPE requests, complete this online form: Healthcare Facility / Agency PPE Critical Needs Assessment Form.
- Long-Term Care Resiliency, Infrastructure Supports, and Empowerment (LTC-RISE): With the ending of the Regional Congregate Care Assistance Teams (RCATs) on December 31, 2021, the Department transitioned from the RCATs to a new program, LTC RISE, effective January 1, 2022. Learn more about LTC RISE. LTC-RISE (pa.gov)
5. COVID Alert PA App
The COVID Alert PA app is a critical tool in our fight against the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Residents and staff with a smartphone should be encouraged to download this free app. After downloading COVID Alert PA, users can opt-in to receive alerts if they have had a potential exposure to someone who tested positive for COVID-19. It can help reduce the risk of unknowingly spreading the virus to family, friends, coworkers, residents, and the larger community.
COVID Alert PA protects your privacy and personal information. It uses Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology to detect if users are in close contact with another app user. (This is the same technology that smartphones use to connect to wireless headphones or a vehicle.) The app does not use GPS, location services, or any movement or geographical information, and it will never collect, transmit, or store your personal information and is completely anonymous.
6. Hospital Stays, Medical Appointments, and Outings
a. Hospital Stays
The following bullets stipulate the only mandate for COVID-19 testing when a patient is being discharged from a hospital to a SNF:
- Hospitals treating inpatients who will be discharged to a SNF must test the patient for COVID-19 prior to discharging the patient, with the following exceptions:
- Patients who are not currently exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19 and who tested positive for COVID-19 within the last 90 days do not need to be tested prior to discharge.
- Patients who are not currently exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19 and who are fully vaccinated do not need to be tested prior to discharge.
- If a test is administered upon admission to the facility, and the resident is discharged within the 72-hour period, a second test is not required.
- If a patient tested positive for COVID-19 prior to admission to the hospital, the hospital does not need to test the patient again.
- The test must be administered within the 72-hour period prior to discharge, and the result must be obtained and communicated to the SNF prior to discharge.
- Patients with a positive COVID-19 test result should only be discharged to a SNF with the ability to adhere to infection prevention and control recommendations of the Department and the CDC for the care of COVID-19 patients. SNFs that meet this criterion may not refuse to accept or readmit a patient or resident with a positive COVID-19 test result but may refuse to accept a patient-resident if a COVID-19 test has not been administered in accordance with this guidance.
b. Medical Appointments
Residents should continue to receive necessary medical care that is needed outside of the SNF. Typically, transportation for medical appointments is provided by the SNF. If the resident chooses to have a family member or friend transport them to the appointment, there should be no known risk of COVID-19 transmission in keeping with the facility's current screening and testing protocols. In all instances, the resident and those involved in the transportation should adhere to appropriate infection prevention and control protocols as outlined in PA-HAN 624 including universal masking. If a face covering or mask can be tolerated, the resident should wear one during transport and the driver should be wearing a face covering or mask as well. If a resident is up to date with all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses, that resident may choose to have close contact (including touch) with the family member or friend who is transporting them. If close contact occurs, hand hygiene should be performed before and after (in addition to universal masking). All should be screened upon return to the SNF as well.
Staff should be cognizant of residents who go off-site for outpatient medical care, including dialysis, and remain alert for notification of any known exposures. Such exposure would require testing, case identification, contact tracing, quarantine, observation, and any other necessary medical care. If there is no known exposure, testing is not necessary.
c. Outings for Non-Medical Reasons
Each SNF should develop a policy to address outings for non-medical reasons, although there will be those scenarios that need assessed on a case-by-case basis. Considerations for development of those policies and making those assessments include:
- The extent to which infection prevention and control precautions (including universal masking, hand hygiene, and physical distancing) are achieved based on the circumstances of the outing;
- Whether the resident is up to date with all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses;
- The resident's level of vulnerability due to any chronic or immunocompromised conditions; and
- Duration of the outing, including whether it includes an overnight stay.
In most circumstances, quarantine is not recommended for residents who leave the facility for less than 24 hours (e.g., for medical appointments, community outings with family or friends) unless:
- The resident, medical provider, or family report that the resident had close contact with someone with SARS-CoV-2 infection; or
- Based on an assessment of risk, uncertainty exists about the resident's adherence or the adherence of those around them to recommended IPC measures. The risk assessment should be documented by the facility in the resident's chart and outline the decision-making process.
Residents who leave the facility for 24 hours or longer should be managed as described in PA-HAN 626. This includes for overnight hospitalizations greater than 24 hours.
7. Mandatory Reporting of COVID-19 Vaccine Status of Residents and Staff to the CDC's NHSN System
As discussed in QSO-21-19-NH, CMS has added a new requirement at §483.80(g)(1)(viii)-(ix) for SNFs to report COVID-19 vaccine status of residents and staff, each dose of vaccine received, COVID-19 vaccination adverse events, and therapeutics administered to residents for treatment of COVID-19, to CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) system.
8. Mandatory Reporting of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths of Residents and Staff to the CDC's NHSN System
As discussed in QSO-20-29-NH, SNFs must report suspected and confirmed COVID-19 infections among residents and staff and COVID-19 deaths among residents and staff.
9. Requirement to Develop Policies and Procedures to Educate Residents and Resident Representatives and Staff Regarding Benefits and Potential Side Effects Associated with the COVID-19 Vaccine
As discussed in QSO-21-19-NH, CMS has added new requirements at §483.80(d)(3)(i)-(vii) for SNFs to develop policies and procedure to educate residents or resident representatives and staff regarding the benefits and potential side effects associated with the COVID-19 vaccine and offer the vaccine unless it is medically contraindicated or the resident or staff member has already been immunized. Additionally, the facility must maintain appropriate documentation to reflect that the facility provided the required COVID-19 vaccine education, and whether the resident and staff member received the vaccine.
10. Survey Considerations
As discussed in QSO-20-39-NH and QSO-22-10-ALL, CMS and the Department are ultimately responsible for ensuring surveyors are compliant with applicable expectations. SNFs are not permitted to restrict access to surveyors based on vaccination status, nor ask a surveyor proof of their vaccination status as a condition of entry. Surveyors shall not be allowed to enter a facility to conduct a survey if they are not fully vaccinated/approved accommodation, have positive viral test for COVID-19, signs or symptoms of COVID-19, or currently meet the criteria for quarantine. Questions regarding the process the Department is using to ensure surveyors can enter a facility safely can be addressed to the Department.
This updated guidance will be in effect immediately. The Department may update or supplement this guidance as needed.
 This updates the Interim Guidance for Skilled Nursing Facilities During COVID-19 issued on May 26, 2021. Revisions are displayed in red font.
 See also. PA-HAN 624
 See also the Frequently Asked Questions in response to the Order of the Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Health Directing Long-Term Care Facilities to Implement Measures for Use and Distribution of Personal Protective Equipment.
 See also PA-HAN 492.
 See the current CDC guidance at Updated Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations in Response to COVID-19 Vaccination
 See also PA-HAN 627.