Guidance on Homemade Masks During COVID-19
The Department of Health has received inquiries requesting additional guidance and clarification regarding making and wearing masks in public spaces during the (COVID-19) outbreak. The Department is issuing the below guidance in response.
Use of Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is a type of specialized clothing, barrier product, or breathing device used to protect workers from serious injuries or illnesses while doing their jobs. These include gloves (vinyl, latex or nitrile); gowns; shoe and head covers; mask or respirators (N95 respirator); and other face and eye protection (goggles or a face shield). Health care providers need to use PPE. Healthcare facilities and providers that need additional PPE should refer to
Use of Fabric or Cloth Masks
Homemade masks made out of fabric and cloth are not considered PPE. However, homemade masks can be an effective complement to handwashing, social-distancing and other mitigation measures.
Homemade masks limit the spread of infectious droplets in the air by containing coughs and sneezes. When a homemade mask can't be acquired a scarf or bandana can be utilized. By implementing community use of these homemade fabric or cloth masks, everyone will have a higher degree of protection from this virus.
My Mask Protects You, Your Mask Protects Me
Those who are staying home and have no close contacts who are infected with COIVID-19 don't need a mask most of the time. However, wearing a nonmedical or homemade mask may be helpful in certain situations or for certain populations*.
- Shopping at essential businesses, like grocery stores or pharmacies;
- While visiting your health care provider;
- Traveling on public transportation;
- Interacting with customers/clients at essential businesses;
- When feeling sick, coughing, or sneezing;
Because homemade masks protect everyone else from the droplets created by the wearer, it is important that as many people as possible wear these masks when leaving their homes. This helps prevent those who may be infectious but are only mildly symptomatic or not symptomatic from spreading the virus to others in the community. Everyone should remember the phrase "my mask protects you, your mask protects me." By increasing the overall number of people who are containing their coughs, sneezes, and other droplets, it will help us control the overall spread of the virus.
Help Support Health Care Workers
Do not purchase masks designed for health care professionals. N95 and surgical masks are designed to protect those who are working in high risk situations with a likelihood of exposure. Instead, make your own mask or purchase one from an online small business.
Businesses should consider purchasing homemade or cloth masks for their employees as part of their uniform or in recognition of good public health practices. Businesses should also consider non- punitive policies that encourage employees to wear masks while at work.
Best Practices for Homemade Masks:
The best practices for making and wearing fabric or cloth masks include:
- Consider buying materials online to avoid exposure in public places;
- Purchase masks made by small businesses, saving medical masks for health care workers;
- Before putting on a mask, clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water;
- The mask should fit snugly around the mouth and nose;
- If the mask has a metal wire it should be fitted snuggly to the bridge of the nose.
- Avoid touching the mask while using it, if you do wash your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub;
- Made out of two layers of tightly woven 100% cotton fabric;
- Be discarded or washed after every use;
- Should not be worn damp or when wet from spit or mucus;
- To remove the mask: remove it from behind, do not touch the front of mask;
- The wearer should immediately wash their hands with soap and water for 20 seconds after removing the mask.
How to Maximize Prevention Efforts:
Wearing a mask alone is not effective in reducing transmission of COVID-19. The below recommendations should be followed by everyone to help slow the spread of and minimize exposure to COVID-19.
- Practice social distancing, meaning staying at least 6 feet apart from others when in public or outdoors;
- Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water, or using hand sanitizer when soap and water is not immediately available;
- Cover coughs and sneezes with your elbow;
- Avoid touching your face;
- Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces;
- Stay home and limit public outings to only essential, life-sustaining activities.
Populations at Highest Risk:
Defined by CDC as:
- Persons 65 or older
- Persons living in a nursing home facility
- Chronic lung disease or moderate to severe asthma
- Serious heart conditions
- Conditions that can cause a person to be immunocompromised, including cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled HIV or AIDS, and prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune weakening medications.
- Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] of 40 or higher)
- Chronic kidney disease and who are undergoing dialysis
- Liver disease
How to Make a Homemade Mask out of Fabric or Cloth:
Below are instructions on how to make a mask at home.
- Fabric (100% cotton is most effective)
- Fabric Ties
- Sewing machine or a needle and thread
- Measure and cut two pieces of fabric in a rectangle pattern to fit snugly around the face (size 12 inches by 6 inches is standard for adults)
- Tightly sew both layers together on all edges
- Cut fabric ties to fit around the ears
- Sew the ties to the insides of the mask on the smaller edge, repeat on both sides
- Resew the sides to ensure a tight seal between both pieces of fabric and the earpiece