Zika virus is a generally mild illness that is spread primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito.
The current Zika virus outbreak began in May 2015 in Brazil, leading to reports of a neurological disease called Guillain-Barré syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects such as microcephaly. The outbreak has spread to numerous countries and areas, prompting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to issue travel notices to regions where the Zika virus transmission is ongoing. In response to the emerging disease, Pennsylvania has created a Zika Response Plan.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs)
What are the symptoms of Zika virus?
Common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, muscle pain and conjunctivitis (red eyes).
How is Zika virus spread?
Zika virus is mainly spread from the bite of an infected mosquito to a person. Zika virus can spread through sexual contact from a partner who has been infected with Zika virus. Although less common, Zika virus can also be spread from a mother to baby during pregnancy or during the time of birth or through blood transfusion.
How dangerous is Zika virus?
Most people infected with Zika virus have mild symptoms (or no symptoms at all). However, pregnant women who are infected with Zika virus have a greater risk of babies born with microcephaly, a birth defect where the baby’s head is smaller than expected, or other birth defects. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a rare but severe and progressive neurological disorder, has been reported to be associated with Zika virus infection. People rarely die from Zika virus.
Is there a treatment or a vaccine for Zika virus?
There are no vaccines or medications to prevent or treat Zika virus infections. If someone becomes ill after being infected with Zika virus, the symptoms should be treated by getting rest, drinking fluids to prevent dehydration, and taking medicines such as acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain. Aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen or naproxen, should be avoided.
Is it safe for me to travel to other countries?
The CDC has issued travel notices
for regions where Zika virus transmission is a risk. Zika travel notices include certain countries in South America, Central America, the Caribbean, the Pacific Islands, Africa and Southeast Asia. Within the U.S., there are currently no travel notices.
Travelers to these destinations should take extra steps to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
Pregnant women, or women planning to become pregnant, should avoid travel to regions with active Zika virus transmission.
How can I protect myself from Zika virus?
The best way to prevent Zika is to avoid mosquito bites. To do this:
• Use an EPA-registered insect repellent. EPA-registered repellents are safe for pregnant women and children to use, but be sure to check the product label for any warnings and follow the instructions closely.
• When indoors, use air conditioning, window screens or insecticide-treated mosquito netting to keep mosquitoes out of the home.
• Reduce the number of mosquitoes outside the home or hotel room by emptying or routinely changing standing water from containers such as flowerpots, pet dishes and bird baths.
• Wear long sleeves and pants when outdoors.
You can also protect yourself by avoiding sexual contact with a partner who traveled to a Zika-affected area or use a condom (or other barriers to prevent infection) correctly each time you have sex. For more information, visit the Zika Virus Prevention page
Have there been cases of Zika virus in Pennsylvania?
There have been cases in travelers who have returned from areas where Zika virus is common. Local transmission of Zika virus (virus acquired from local mosquitoes) has not been identified in Pennsylvania.
Can my pets get Zika virus?
There have been no reports of pets or other types of animals becoming sick with Zika virus.
What should I do if I think I have Zika?
Contact your health care provider if you developed symptoms of Zika virus within two weeks after returning from travel to a Zika-affected area or had recent sexual contact with a partner who was exposed to Zika virus. Your health care provider may test your blood and/or urine for Zika virus and other similar illnesses.
If you are pregnant and traveled to a Zika-affected area within the last 12 weeks and have experienced symptoms associated with Zika virus, your health care provider may test your blood and/or urine for Zika virus.
I have Zika virus. How can I protect others from getting sick?
When you are infected with Zika, the virus can be found in your blood and passed to a mosquito that bites you. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people. This process is called human-to-mosquito-to-human transmission. To prevent others from getting sick, strictly avoid all mosquito bites for three weeks.
Zika virus can also be spread during sex by a partner infected with Zika virus to his or her sex partner(s). To prevent Zika from spreading, use condoms (or other barriers to prevent infection) correctly every time you have sex or abstain from sex. How long to continue using a condom or waiting to have sex depends on each couple’s situation and concerns
. For couples whose beliefs and cultural values may influence contraceptive decision-making, discuss with your doctor alternate methods to prevent pregnancy.
Zika virus could also be spread through blood transfusions. If you have Zika virus, follow official guidelines
on deferring blood donations.
What is Pennsylvania doing to protect its residents?
The Pennsylvania Department of Health and Department of Environmental Protection created a Zika Response Plan to prepare for Zika virus testing, to enhance surveillance and control of mosquito populations that can spread Zika virus, and to enhance surveillance for Zika cases in Pennsylvania.
The Pennsylvania Department of Health is also offering Zika Virus Prevention Kits free of charge to pregnant women. They can be obtained locally at health departments, federally qualified health centers, community health centers, WIC offices, and other non-profit organizations that service women who are either low-income or homeless. Pregnant women can find a kit provider
in their local area.